This headstock, probably from a C F Martin guitar earlier than the middle 1860s, in style 17 or 18, was originally stained black and has no headplate.
It's cracked on the back and one side from being broken off the neck. It also appears to have been cut away from the neck and/or sanded flush at the joint.
The tuners have a simple cross design stamped around the mounting holes. A knob on one tuner is a much later, possibly Bakelite, replacement. The worm gear and support bushings for this tuner are also replacements.
The number "3" is penned on the inner surface of the joint.
One contributing factor to the breakage may have been excessive tension due to the use of steel strings, a remnant of which was found, still wrapped around one post. This might have aided what ever force caused the damage. Read what luthier and antique instrument expert Steve Kovacik has to say about steel strings on early guitars.
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